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Sports Nutrition for Athletes

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  DietGrail GI-Carb Publications and Nutrition Software


Food NameProteinCarbFatCaloriesGlycemic Index 
Milk, human1.06.94.470 
Milk3.34.72.05030
Milk, cow's, fluid, whole3.24.53.36027
Milk, cow's, fluid, whole, low-sodium3.14.53.56131
Milk, calcium fortified, cow's, fluid, whole3.24.53.26031
Milk, calcium fortified, cow's, fluid, 1% fat3.45.01.04232
Milk, calcium fortified, cow's, fluid, skim or nonfat3.44.90.23532
Milk, cow's, fluid, other than whole ("lowfat")3.34.81.34432
Milk, cow's, fluid, 2% fat3.34.72.05030
Milk, cow's, fluid, acidophilus, 1% fat3.45.01.04232
Milk, cow's, fluid, acidophilus, 2% fat3.34.72.05030
Milk, cow's, fluid, 1% fat3.45.01.04232
Milk, cow's, fluid, skim or nonfat, 0.5% or less butterfat3.45.00.13432
Milk, cow's, fluid, filled with vegetable oil3.34.73.463 
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SPORTS NUTRITION Guidelines

from the International Society of Sports Nutrition

The position of the Society regarding nutrient timing and the intake of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in reference to healthy, exercising individuals is summarized by the following eight points.

The recommendations are suitable for researchers, practitioners, coaches and athletes who may use nutrient timing as a means to achieve optimum health and performance goals.

1) Maximal endogenous glycogen stores are best promoted by following a high-glycemic, high-carbohydrate (CHO) diet (600 – 1000 grams CHO or ~8 – 10 g CHO/kg/d), and ingestion of free amino acids and protein (PRO) alone or in combination with CHO before resistance exercise can maximally stimulate protein synthesis.

2) During exercise, CHO should be consumed at a rate of 30 – 60 grams of CHO/hour in a 6 – 8% CHO solution (8 – 16 fluid ounces) every 10 – 15 minutes. Adding PRO to create a CHO:PRO ratio of 3 – 4:1 may increase endurance performance and maximally promotes glycogen re-synthesis during acute and subsequent bouts of endurance exercise.

3) Ingesting CHO alone or in combination with PRO during resistance exercise increases muscle glycogen, offsets muscle damage, and facilitates greater training adaptations after either acute or prolonged periods of supplementation with resistance training.

4) Post-exercise (within 30 minutes) consumption of CHO at high dosages (8 – 10 g CHO/kg/day) have been shown to stimulate muscle glycogen re-synthesis, while adding PRO (0.2 g – 0.5 g PRO/kg/day) to CHO at a ratio of 3 – 4:1 (CHO: PRO) may further enhance glycogen re-synthesis.

5) Post-exercise ingestion (immediately to 3 h post) of amino acids, primarily essential amino acids, has been shown to stimulate robust increases in muscle protein synthesis, while the addition of CHO may stimulate even greater levels of protein synthesis. Additionally, pre-exercise consumption of a CHO + PRO supplement may result in peak levels of protein synthesis.

6) During consistent, prolonged resistance training, post-exercise consumption of varying doses of CHO + PRO supplements in varying dosages have been shown to stimulate improvements in strength and body composition when compared to control or placebo conditions.

7) The addition of creatine (Cr) (0.1 g Cr/kg/day) to a CHO + PRO supplement may facilitate even greater adaptations to resistance training.

8) Nutrient timing incorporates the use of methodical planning and eating of whole foods, nutrients extracted from food, and other sources. The timing of the energy intake and the ratio of certain ingested macronutrients are likely the attributes which allow for enhanced recovery and tissue repair following high-volume exercise, augmented muscle protein synthesis, and improved mood states when compared with unplanned or traditional strategies of nutrient intake.

How to use the DietGrail food database to select foods for peak performance

This unique sports nutrition food database provides the fat, carbohydrate and protein contents of approximately 7,000 food items and the glycemic index ratings for nearly 4,000 foods.
In addition, a food's mineral and vitamin contents are displayed in charts to allow easy evaluation of its nutrition. You can use these vitamin and mineral charts to choose the most nutrient-dense foods and avoid foods with empty calories.
In addition, the calorie pie chart shows the contribution of fat, carb and protein to the food's total calorie. If you wish to choose high-carb foods, you can sort foods by their carb contents, or review the calorie chart and choose those where carb's contribution to total calorie value is highest.
Foods can be searched by name and sorted by macronutrient contents to help you find the most appropriate foods for peak sports performance.

Usage Note

  • Fat, carbohydrate and protein values in table are in grams and calculated per 100g of food.
  • Click on column header to sort foods by name or by fat, carbohydrate or protein content.
  • Pie chart shows relative contributions to total calories from carbohydrate, protein and fat (and alcohol, if exists).
  • The mineral and vitamin charts show the relative contents of minerals and vitamins of each food. The higher the bubble, the higher mineral or vitamin content a food has relative to other foods. The larger the bubble, the greater the mineral or vitamin content relative to the Recommended Daily Allowances.

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High-Glycemic High-Carb Food List

Carb values are in grams per 100 grams of food weight. These foods promote maximal endogenous glycogen stores.



High-Glycemic High-Carb Foods Glycemic Index Carb

Gumdrops 78 98.9

Licorice 78 93.6

Puffed wheat cereal, presweetened (Includes: Golden Crisp, formerly called Super Golden 71 90.9

Corn Pops 80 90.0

Wheat, puffed, presweetened with sugar 71 90.0

Malt-O-Meal Coco-Roos 77 89.5

Smacks, Kellogg's (formerly Honey Smacks) 71 89.0

Malt-O-Meal Golden Puffs (formerly Sugar Puffs) 71 89.0

Cocoa Puffs 80 88.0

Puffed rice cereal with cocoa (Includes: Cocoa Pebbles) 77 87.9

Rice, puffed 87 87.8

Malt-O-Meal Puffed Rice 87 87.8

Chocolate flavored frosted puffed corn cereal 80 87.2

Corn flakes, Kellogg 81 87.1

Rice Krispies Treats Cereal (Kellogg's) 82 87.0

Berry Berry Kix 113 87.0

Honey Crunch Corn Flakes, Kellogg's 72 87.0

Corn flakes 81 87.0

Crunchy Corn Bran, Quaker 75 86.3

Crispy Rice 82 86.2

Cocoa Krispies 77 86.1

Rice Chex 89 86.0

Kix 81 86.0

Corn Chex 83 86.0

Corn Puffs 81 86.0

Frosted Cheerios 74 86.0

Crispix 87 86.0

Crispy Brown Rice Cereal 82 86.0

Fruit leather 99 85.8


High-Glycemic High-Carb Foods Glycemic Index Carb

Total Corn Flakes 81 85.6

Malt-O-Meal Crispy Rice 82 85.5

Rice Krispies 82 85.5

Crackers, graham, fat free 74 84.1

Cookie, fortune 77 84.0

Apple Cinnamon Cheerios 74 84.0

Shredded wheat cereal, presweetened (Includes: Frosted Wheat Bites) 72 83.8

Oh's, Honey Graham 71 83.8

Crackers, matzo 71 83.7

Cereal 75 83.0

Cereal, ready-to-eat 75 83.0

Golden Grahams 71 83.0

Product 19 76 83.0

Cookie, vanilla sandwich, reduced fat 77 82.5

Crackers, saltine, fat free, low sodium 74 82.3

Pretzel, baby food 83 82.2

Corn, whole wheat and rolled oats cereal 77 81.9

Wheat and malt barley cereal, flakes (Includes: Grape-Nuts Flakes) 80 81.5

Puffed rice cake without salt 78 81.5

Puffed rice cake 78 81.5

Wheat and malt barley cereal, granules (Includes: Grape-Nuts) 71 81.3

Nutty Nuggets, Ralston Purina 71 81.3

Crackers, matzo, low sodium 71 81.1

Rice cake, cracker-type 78 81.1

Multi Grain Cheerios 74 81.0

Shredded wheat, plain (Includes: Shredded Wheat, 100%) 75 80.9

Bran flakes cereal (Includes: Post Natural Bran Flakes, formerly called 40% Bran Flakes) 74 80.4

Crackers, graham, lowfat 74 80.4

Bran Flakes (formerly 40% Bran Flakes) 74 80.1

Kashi cereal, NS as to ready to eat or cooked 74 80.0

Strawberry Squares Mini-Wheats, Kellogg's (formerly Strawberry Squares) 72 80.0




High-Glycemic High-Carb Foods Glycemic Index Carb

Millet, puffed 107 80.0

Malt-O-Meal Honey and Nut Toasty O's 74 80.0

Kashi, Puffed 74 80.0

Honey Nut Cheerios 74 80.0

Pretzels, hard 83 79.8

Pretzels 83 79.8

Pretzel, hard, unsalted 83 79.2

Complete Wheat Bran Flakes, Kellogg's (formerly 40% Bran Flakes) 74 79.0

Crackers, graham, with raisins 74 78.9

Cookie, vanilla wafer, reduced fat 77 78.8

Pretzel, hard, multigrain 83 78.5

Quaker Oatmeal Squares (formerly Quaker Oat Squares) 77 78.3

Fiber 7 Flakes, Health Valley 74 78.2

Corn, whole wheat and rolled oats cereal with almonds 77 78.0

Popcorn, air-popped (no butter or no oil added) 72 77.8

Oatmeal Honey Nut Heaven, Quaker (formerly Toasted Oatmeal, Honey Nut) 77 77.4

Complete Oat Bran Flakes, Kellogg's (formerly Common Sense Oat Bran, plain) 77 77.0

Cookie, gingersnaps 77 76.9

Crackers, graham 74 76.8

Breakfast bar, cereal crust with fruit filling, fat free 72 76.7

Malt-O-Meal Puffed Wheat 74 76.4

Wheat, puffed, plain 74 76.4

Oatmeal Crisp with Almonds 77 76.0

Oat cereal 74 75.6

Date 103 75.0

Total 76 75.0

Bagel chip 72 74.9

Malt-O-Meal Toasty O's 74 74.6

Crackers, rice 78 74.4

Toasted oat cereal 74 74.2

Malt-O-Meal Toasted Oat Cereal 74 74.0


High-Glycemic High-Carb Foods Glycemic Index Carb

Cheerios 74 74.0

Cookie, vanilla wafer 77 73.6

Popcorn, popped in oil, lowfat, low sodium 72 73.4

Pretzel, oatbran, hard 83 73.0

Breakfast bar, cereal crust with fruit filling, lowfat 72 72.9

Popcorn, popped in oil, lowfat 72 72.2

Cookie, vanilla sandwich 77 72.1

Crackers, water biscuits 71 71.7

Crackers, saltine, low sodium 74 71.5

Cracklin' Oat Bran 77 71.4

Crackers, saltine 74 70.9

Crackers, oyster 71 70.9

Cookie, graham cracker sandwich with chocolate and marshmallow filling 74 70.7

Cookie, vanilla waffle creme 77 70.1

Pretzels, soft 83 69.4

Bread stick, hard, whole wheat 83 68.4

Crackers, graham, chocolate covered 74 66.5

Cake, cupcake, not chocolate, with icing or filling, lowfat, cholesterol free 73 65.7

Bagel, whole wheat, toasted 71 62.6

Bagel, wheat, toasted 71 62.6

Bagel, wheat, with fruit and nuts, toasted 71 62.3

Bread, pita, whole wheat, toasted 71 62.0

Bagel, wheat, with raisins, toasted 71 61.8

Bagel, wheat bran, toasted 71 61.1

Crackers, NS as to sweet or nonsweet 74 61.0

Bread, pita, whole wheat, 100%, toasted 71 60.4

Bagel, whole wheat, 100%, toasted 71 60.4

French cruller 76 59.5

Multigrain mixture, bread sticks, sesame nuggets, pretzels, rye chips 83 59.5

Bagel, with raisins, toasted 72 59.3

Bagel, wheat, with fruit and nuts 71 59.2




High-Glycemic High-Carb Foods Glycemic Index Carb

Bagel, wheat 71 58.4

Bagel, whole wheat 71 58.4

Popcorn, popped in oil, unsalted 72 58.1

Bread, French or Vienna, whole wheat, toasted 71 58.1

Muffin, English, whole wheat, 100%, with raisins, toasted 71 58.0

Bagel, wheat, with raisins 71 58.0

Cake, sponge, chocolate, with icing 87 57.9

Roll, white, hard, toasted 73 57.9

Bagel, whole wheat, 100%, with raisins, toasted 71 57.7

Popcorn, popped in oil, unbuttered 72 57.5

Bagel, with fruit other than raisins, toasted 72 57.5

Doughnut, chocolate, cake type 76 57.4

Bread, Cuban, toasted 95 57.1

Bread, Native, Puerto Rican style, toasted (Pan Criollo) 73 57.1

Bagel, toasted 72 57.1

Roll, French or Vienna, toasted 95 57.0

Bagel, wheat bran 71 57.0

Muffin, English, whole wheat, with raisins, toasted 71 56.6

Muffin, English, wheat or cracked wheat, with raisins, toasted 71 56.6

Bread, whole wheat, toasted 71 56.4

Bread, French or Vienna, toasted 95 56.4

Bagel, whole wheat, 100% 71 56.4

Roll, whole wheat, 100%, toasted 71 56.2

Bread, pita, whole wheat 71 55.8

Biscuit, baking powder or buttermilk type, made from refrigerated dough, lowfat 92 55.4

Doughnut, wheat, chocolate covered 76 55.3

Bagel, with raisins 72 55.2

Muffin, English, with raisins, toasted 77 55.0

Bread, pita, whole wheat, 100% 71 55.0

Bread, Italian, Grecian, Armenian, toasted 73 54.9

Bread, lowfat, 98% fat free, toasted 95 54.9


High-Glycemic High-Carb Foods Glycemic Index Carb

Bread, whole wheat, 100%, with raisins, toasted 71 54.9

Bread, white, toasted 73 54.8

Bread, toasted 73 54.8

Muffin, English, with fruit other than raisins, toasted 77 54.8

Bagel, with fruit other than raisins 72 54.6

Bread, whole wheat, with raisins, toasted 71 54.5

Bread, white, low sodium or no salt, toasted 73 54.4

Bread, white, toasted 73 54.4

Bread, toasted 73 54.4

Bread, cinnamon, toasted 73 54.4

Roll, hoagie, submarine, toasted 73 54.3

Roll, toasted 73 54.3

Bread, whole wheat, 100%, toasted 71 54.3

Doughnut, oriental 76 53.9

Bagel, whole wheat, 100%, with raisins 71 53.7

Popcorn, air-popped, buttered 72 53.7

Cornbread muffin, stick, round, toasted 76 53.6

Doughnut, custard-filled, with icing 76 53.3

Doughnut, chocolate, cake type, with chocolate icing 76 52.8

Roll, hard 73 52.7

Roll, white, hard 73 52.7

Roll, whole wheat, toasted 71 52.7

Roll, wheat or cracked wheat, toasted 71 52.7

Muffin, English, toasted 77 52.7

Bread, wheat bran, toasted 71 52.5

Bread, French or Vienna, whole wheat 71 52.3

Bread, black, toasted 76 52.2

Popcorn, flavored 72 52.0

Bread, Cuban 95 52.0

Popcorn, popped in oil, buttered 72 52.0

Bread, French or Vienna 95 51.9


High-Glycemic High-Carb Foods Glycemic Index Carb

Muffin, English, whole wheat, 100%, with raisins 71 51.8

Bread, whole wheat, 100%, toasted 71 51.7

Roll, Mexican, bolillo 73 51.7

Bread, whole wheat 71 51.4

Doughnut, chocolate, raised or yeast, with chocolate icing 76 51.4

Bread, whole wheat, toasted 71 51.3

Bread, wheat or cracked wheat, toasted 71 51.3

Roll, whole wheat, 100% 71 51.1

Cornbread muffin, stick, round 76 50.9

Bread, whole wheat, with raisins 71 50.9

Roll, whole wheat, 100%, toasted 71 50.8

Roll, whole wheat, toasted 71 50.6

Roll, wheat or cracked wheat, toasted 71 50.6

Bagel 72 50.5

Roll, garlic 73 50.3

Roll, French or Vienna 95 50.2

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