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Cadmium in Food

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Food NameCadmium
Beer, ale0.0
Beer, bitter0.0
Beer, lager0.0
Beer, draught0.0
Wine, white, dry style (sugars content < 1%)0.0
Wine, white, medium dry style (~ 1% sugars)0.0
Wine, white, medium sweet style (~ 2.5% sugars)0.0
Tea, regular, brewed from leaf or teabags, without milk0.0
Water, tap0.0
Beverage base, chocolate flavour, added minerals calcium & iron & vitamins A, B1, B2, C & D7.1
Beverage, chocolate flavour, from base (Milo), with regular fat milk0.6
Soft drink, energy drink0.0
Juice, orange, added vitamin c0.0
Juice, orange, sweetened, no added vitamin C0.0
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Cadmium

Cadmium is a silver-white, blue-tinged metal that is found in the earth’s crust. It is an odorless natural element that is usually found as a mineral combined with other elements. The chemical formula for cadmium is Cd. There are many cadmium compounds, some of which include: cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfate, cadmium sulfide, and cadmium chloride.

Most cadmium used in the United States is extracted during the production of metals such as copper, lead, and zinc. Cadmium is found in some foods and is emitted by the combustion of fossil fuels, cigarette smoking, and burning waste.

Exposure to Cadmium

You can be exposed to cadmium by breathing or ingesting it. Exposure can occur if you smoke cigarettes or breathe second- or third-hand cigarette smoke. You can be exposed if you eat foods that contain high levels of cadmium, such as shellfish, liver, and kidney meats. Other foods that contain cadmium are grain cereal products, potatoes, and some leafy vegetables. You can also be exposed if you drink contaminated water or live near an industrial facility or smelter that emits cadmium into the air. People who fish in local waters for food may be exposed to fish in which cadmium has accumulated.

At work, you can be exposed to cadmium if you work at a smelting or electroplating facility, a battery or fungicide manufacturer, or photocopying site. Other industrial processes that include a risk of exposure to cadmium include abrasive blasting, gas welding and cutting, metal preparation and pouring, painting, processing scrap that contains cadmium, steel welding, textile printing or dyeing, semiconductor manufacturing, and soldering. Exposure may come from inhaling cadmium dust or fumes, or ingesting contamination on your hands.

At home, you can be exposed to cadmium if you make ceramics, jewelry, or enameled crafts. You may also be exposed through glassblowing, painting, or ingesting an herbal remedy that contains cadmium.

Summary: Exposure to cadmium happens mostly in the workplace where cadmium products are made. The general population is exposed from breathing cigarette smoke or eating cadmium contaminated foods. Cadmium damages the kidneys, lungs, and bones.

Cadmium and Health

Cadmium and cadmium compounds are listed as carcinogens in the Twelfth Report on Carcinogens published by the National Toxicology Program because they are known to cause cancer. Long-term exposure to high levels of cadmium can cause lung cancer. There also may be an association between exposure to cadmium and cancer of the prostate, kidney, and bladder.

Breathing high levels of cadmium can severely damage the lungs and may cause death. Eating food or drinking water with very high levels of cadmium can severely irritate the stomach, leading to vomiting and diarrhea, and sometimes even death.

Ingestion of cadmium salts can cause severe and sometimes fatal poisoning. Inhaling cadmium dusts and fumes may cause acute poisoning. Cadmium cyanide and cadmium fluoride are also poisonous.

Long-term exposure to lower levels of cadmium can lead to a buildup of cadmium in the kidneys and possible kidney disease. Other long-term health effects include lung damage, emphysema, bronchitis, fragile bones, pulmonary edema, difficult breathing, anemia, rhinitis, and discoloration of teeth.

Long-term inhalation of cadmium dust or fumes can cause chronic cadmium poisoning that includes chest pains, headache, and weakness. Long-term inhalation of cadmium salts can lead to cadmium poisoning that includes convulsions, headache, muscular cramps, and vertigo. Short-term inhalation of cadmium dust or fumes may cause cough, headache, chest pain, irritability, bronchopneumonia, and throat and nose irritation.

Health Effects of Cadmium in Children

The health effects in children are expected to be similar to the effects seen in adults (kidney, lung, and bone damage depending on the route of exposure).

A few studies in animals indicate that younger animals absorb more cadmium than adults. Animal studies also indicate that the young are more susceptible than adults to a loss of bone and decreased bone strength from exposure to cadmium.

We don't know if cadmium causes birth defects in people. The babies of animals exposed to high levels of cadmium during pregnancy had changes in behavior and learning ability. There is also some information from animal studies that high enough exposures to cadmium before birth can reduce body weights and affect the skeleton in the developing young.

Test of Exposure to Cadmium

Cadmium can be measured in blood, urine, hair, or nails. Urinary cadmium has been shown to accurately reflect the amount of cadmium in the body. The amount of cadmium in your blood shows your recent exposure to cadmium. The amount of cadmium in your urine shows both your recent and your past exposure.

High Cadmium Food Sources

In the following list, cadmium content (measured largely by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) is in micrograms per 100 g of food weight (or 100 mL of liquid food).



Cadmium
Food Name

53.1
Mussel, green, steamed or boiled

42.0
Oyster, raw

19.0
Lamb, kidney, simmered

18.0
Crabmeat, canned in brine, drained

16.0
Crabmeat, canned in brine

13.5
Potato, chips, regular, deep fried, blended oil, from take-away outlet, salted

13.5
Potato, fries, deep fried, blended oil, take-away outlet, salted

13.5
Potato, fries, deep fried, monounsaturated oil, take-away outlet, salted

13.5
Potato, chips, regular, deep fried, monounsaturated oil, from take-away outlet, salted

12.8
Prawn, king (large size), flesh only, purchased cooked

12.8
Prawn, school, flesh only, purchased cooked

12.7
Lamb, liver, grilled

9.1
Potato, coliban, peeled, boiled

7.7
Seed, sesame, white

7.1
Beverage base, chocolate flavor, added minerals calcium & iron & vitamins A, B1, B2, C & D

5.6
Potato, red skin, peeled, boiled

4.5
Garlic, peeled, stir-fried without oil

3.9
Nut, peanut, without skin, roasted, with oil, unsalted

3.9
Nut, peanut, with skin, roasted, with oil, salted

3.9
Nut, peanut, without skin, roasted, with oil, salted

3.5
Peanut, milk chocolate-coated

3.1
Tahini, sesame seed pulp

3.1
Strawberry, raw

3.1
Strawberry, purchased frozen

3.0
Potato, new, peeled, boiled

3.0
Potato, sebago, unpeeled, boiled

2.8
Garlic, peeled, raw

2.6
Potato, pale skin, peeled, boiled

2.6
Chocolate, milk, with added milk solids


Cadmium
Food Name

2.1
Beetroot, canned, drained

2.0
Tuna, canned in brine, drained

2.0
Tuna, canned in water, added salt, drained

1.9
Dried fruit & nut mix, milk chocolate-coated

1.9
Peanut butter, smooth & crunchy, added sugar & salt

1.9
Peanut butter, smooth & crunchy, added sugar, no added salt

1.9
Peanut butter, smooth & crunchy, no added sugar or salt

1.8
Biscuit, savoury, rice cracker

1.7
Chocolate, milk, with dried fruit & nut

1.6
Biscuit, savoury, cheese-flavored

1.5
Celery, stir-fried without oil

1.5
Avocado, raw

1.4
Cabbage, bok choy, stir-fried without oil

1.4
Breakfast cereal, whole wheat, flakes, added dried fruit & nuts, added vitamins B1, B2, B3 & folate, Ca,

Fe & fibre

1.2
Almond, milk chocolate-coated

1.2
Celery, raw

1.1
Biscuit, savoury, flavored

1.1
Bread, mixed grain, toasted

1.0
Cake, lamington, plain, commercial

1.0
Lettuce, iceberg, raw

1.0
Lettuce, cos, raw

1.0
Cabbage, bok choy, raw

1.0
Lettuce, mignonette, raw

1.0
Bread, from white flour, toasted

1.0
Fish, crumbed, purchased frozen, baked

1.0
Bread, from white flour, added omega-3 polyunsaturates, toasted

1.0
Dried fruit mix (raisin or sultana), milk chocolate-coated

0.9
Bread, mixed grain

0.9
Breakfast cereal, mixed grain (wheat, oat & corn), extruded shapes, added vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 & C,

Ca & Fe

0.9
Macadamia, milk chocolate-coated


Cadmium
Food Name

0.9
Capsicum, red, stir-fried without oil

0.9
Capsicum, green, stir-fried without oil

0.8
Biscuit, savoury, from white flour, flaky cracker style

0.8
Biscuit, savoury, from white flour, Salada style

0.8
Capsicum, red, raw

0.8
Bread, from white flour, added omega-3 polyunsaturates

0.8
Biscuit, savoury, from white flour, plain snack cracker style

0.8
Biscuit, savoury, wholemeal wheat flour

0.8
Capsicum, green, raw

0.8
Breakfast cereal, mixed grain flakes (wheat, oats), added dried fruit, added vitamins B1, B2, B3 & folate

& Fe

0.8
Bread, from wholemeal flour, toasted

0.8
Breakfast cereal, wheat bran, flakes, sultanas, added vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 & folate, Fe & Zn

0.8
Pizza, ham & pineapple, purchased frozen, baked

0.8
Biscuit, sweet, plain

0.8
Bread, from white flour

0.7
Hamburger, plain (beef pattie, lettuce, tomato, onion, sauce), takeaway shop

0.7
Bread, from wholemeal flour

0.6
Tomato, cherry, raw

0.6
Tomato, common, raw

0.6
Tomato, hydroponic, raw

0.6
Spread, yeast, vegemite

0.6
Pasta, white wheat flour, boiled from dry, no added salt

0.6
Pasta, white wheat flour, boiled from dry, with added salt

0.6
Beverage, chocolate flavor, from base (Milo), with regular fat milk

0.5
Milk, cow, fluid, regular fat (3.5%), added omega 3 polyunsaturates

0.5
Cake, chocolate, iced, commercial

0.5
Salami, hungarian

0.5
Cheese, cheddar, processed, reduced fat (~16%), added vitamin D

0.5
Cheese, cheddar, processed, reduced fat (~8%), added vitamin D

0.5
Milk, cow, fluid, reduced fat (1.5%), increased Ca, folate & vitamin D


Cadmium
Food Name

0.5
Milk, cow, fluid, reduced fat (1.5%), added omega 3 polyunsaturates

0.5
Egg, chicken, whole, omega-3 polyunsaturate enriched, raw

0.5
Egg, chicken, whole, omega-3 polyunsaturate enriched, boiled

0.5
Baked beans, canned in tomato sauce

0.5
Breakfast cereal, beverage, all flavors, added vitamins A, B1, B2, C & folate

0.5
Salami, unspecified variety

0.5
Salami, pepperoni

0.5
Salami, mettwurst

0.5
Soy beverage, reduced fat (~ 1.5%), coffee flavored, added Ca & vitamins A, B1, B2 & B12

0.5
Soy beverage, reduced fat (~ 1.5%), chocolate flavored, added Ca & vitamins A, B1, B2 & B12

0.5
Salami, danish

0.5
Baked beans, canned in tomato sauce, salt reduced

0.5
Soy beverage, reduced fat (~1% fat), unflavored, added Ca & vitamins A, B1, B2 & B12

0.5
Salami, milano

0.4
Soy beverage, regular fat (~3%), chocolate flavored, added Ca & vitamins A, B1, B2 & B12

0.4
Pizza, supreme, thick base, fast food chain-style

0.4
Kiwifruit, hayward, peeled, raw

0.4
Dim sim, deep fried, commercial

0.4
Soy beverage, regular fat (~ 3%), unflavored, added Ca, vitamins A, B1, B2 & B12

0.4
Soy beverage, regular fat (~3%), unflavored, added calcium

0.4
Soy beverage, regular fat (~3%), unflavored, unfortified

0.4
Pizza, supreme, thin base, fast food chain style

0.4
Pizza, supreme, takeaway style

0.4
Pizza, ham & pineapple, thin base, fast food chain-style

0.4
Pizza, ham & pineapple, thick base, fast food chain-style

0.4
Pizza, ham & pineapple, takeaway style

0.4
Pizza, supreme, purchased frozen, baked

0.3
Melon, rockmelon (cantaloupe), peeled, raw

0.3
Nut, almond, with skin

0.3
Pear, unpeeled, raw

0.2
Chicken, breast, lean, grilled

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